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Hyderabad liberation day celebration, an apple of discord between BJP and TRS

Hyderabad liberation day celebration, an apple of discord between BJP and TRS

Hyderabad liberation day celebration, an apple of discord between BJP and TRS
September 17
10:01 2019

September 17-The day when police action ended in inducting princely state of Nizam Of Hyderabad Indianian union is celebrated as liberation day by the BJP but not the ruling TRS which thinks only June 2 is Telangana Day.

Attempts of BJP and Amit Shah to make celebrations as a major political overdrive in Hyderabad is opposed by CM KCR and his party today.

On June 3rd 1947, the infamous ‘Mountbatten Plan’ gave three options to the then 552 princely states,To join India or To join Pakistan or To remain independent,thereby creating uncertainty in air over their sovereignty and future political discourse.
All among the Princely states joined India except three states,Junagadh,Kashmir and Hyderabad.

Fate of Three Princely States
a) Junagadh-It was a situated on Saurashtra coast, annexed into India through Plebiscite held in February 1948.

b) Kashmir-The then Maharaja Hari Singh, ruler of Kashmir signed an Instrument of Accession with India

c) Hyderabad-It was annexed into India through Police action of 1948.

Integration of Hyderabad

The Hyderabad was the largest and most developed among all the princely states of British India. Geographically, it was almost at the centre of India and it comprised majority region of Deccan Plateau. The population was 60% Hindu but it was ruled by the minority Muslim king of Asafjah dynasty,The Nizam of Hyderabad, Mir Osman Ali Khan, was a bigot and not a visionary ruler.

The Nizam tried his best to stall merger, He tried to convince Lord Mountbatten to give Hyderabad, a status of an independent constitutional monarchy under the British Common wealth of Nations.Later, he began negotiations with the Portuguese,seeking their help from Goa to provide his state with access to the sea for bringing weaponry from the developed nations.

He resorted to cunning tactics like prolonging negotiations as he signed standstill agreement with India in November 1947 for one year which granted provisions of handling foreign affairs to India. Meanwhile, he used this time to build his military strength and private militia- The Razakars,fearing Hindu civil uprising by the leaders of Hindu Mahasabha, Hyderabad State Congress and Arya Samaj.

He violated the terms of Standstill agreement by giving 20 crores financial help to Pakistan. Nizam brought weapons via air from Bidar and Mannaurand got it transported to Hyderabad by road. Sydney Cotton (Pilot in World War –II) was given the responsibility of bringing the weapons.

This information was leaked by the Rao brothers (Veerabhadra Rao and Ramachandra Rao) to the Indian government. Nizam,on other hand accused India of attempting an economic blockade around the state.

Ittehad-ul-Muslimeen under QasimRazvi gave a slogan ‘Freedom for Hyderabad and Hyderabadis and No agreement with India.’ When QasimRazvi was invited to Delhi for talks with VP Menon (Secretary of Home Dept) and SardarVallabhai Patel (Home Minister of India),he reacted strongly and said “Any such proposal will be answered by a Sword” and “Asafjahi flag will be hoisted at Red fort in Delhi”.

Mir Laiq Ali,the Prime Minister of Nizam,entered into an agreement with Communists to fight with one common enemy (India) and hence the ban on Communists was lifted on 4th May 1948.The Communist party of Hyderabad unit under Devulapally Venkateshwar Rao made a call for Azad Hyderabad which irked the Indian government.

Meanwhile,another rounds of negotiations were prepared by VP Menon and Mir Laiq Ali on 15th June 1948 under ‘Heads of Agreement’ which offered Hyderabad the status of an ‘autonomous dominion’under India but it was out rightly rejected by the Nizam.

On 12th September, MA Jinnah, as oftenly called as ‘Quaid-e-Azam’ in Pakistan died due to lung cancer and pneumonia.This police action had three intentions.

a) To save the people of Hyderabad from the atrocities of the Razakars
b) To crush the armed struggle led by the Communists
c) To merge Hyderabad state into Indian Union.

Indian army made ‘Goddard plan’ during the Operation Polo.According to it, army would enter Solapur from Western side under General JN Chaudhari,who later on went to became the Military Governor of Hyderabad (1948-52) and General Rudra would enter Vijayawada (Bezawada) from eastern side. The overall command was placed in hands Lt.Gen.RajendraSinghji.

The physical absence of Nizam on border brought down the morale of his army.He was mere sitting in his Durbar and relied on his General and Prime Minister.

The action ended on 17th September as Nizam said “The vultures have resigned and I don’t know what to do”. At 4pm on 18 September, Major General Al-Eldroos surrender to JN Chaudhari and announced.
The Nizam of Hyderabad lodged a complaint against the India (Under Article 35 (2) of UN Charter) with the President of the Security Council of UNO on 21st August 1948 via cablegram. Again on 12th September, he made a second complaint. India chose to call it as a ‘police action’

On 17th September the emergency meeting was called by the Sir Alexander Cadogan (Permanent representative of United Kingdom to United Nations) on 11.30 AM GMT (5.30 hours behind Indian Standard Time). However, Hyderabad state surrendered at 3PM IST,two hours before the commencement of scheduled meeting and consequently it was called off.

There was a widespread massive communal outbreak (rapes, looting, genocide) in Hyderabad state especially in Marathwada regions. Nehru appointed Pandit Sunder Lal committee to investigate the riots. The findings of the report were classified until 2013 when it was made public based on a petition filed by Historian Sunil Purushotham from the University of Cambridge. According to the committee, about 27,000 to 40,000 people were killed.

JN Chaudhari was appointed as the Military Governor but soon was replaced by Civil Servant MK Vellodhi. The Nizam was given a titular post, The Rajpramukh till 1956 and a sum of 1 Crore was added into his Privy Purse (pensions to rulers of erstwhile princely states).

By not accepting India’s offer, the disillusioned Nizam dug his own grave, losing his giant empire and personal properties (Sarf-e-Khas), which constituted 10% of total land holdings in the States.He was such a moron that even an assembly of 40% Muslim representation was not acceptable to him despite Muslims constituted only 13% of population.

Though he was a richest person in the world and got featured in TIME magazine of 1937,he lacked common sense. The 24th Amendment 1971 by Indira Gandhi government made him lose his Privy Purse.

By his rickety decisions, he was responsible for the collapse of most developed state of the modern times. The liberation day, as often called by right wing organizations, is itself a misnomer because Hyderabad state lost its glory economically, socially and culturally.

 

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